Basic knowledge of clothing materials
What kind of fabric is the most comfortable, what kind of lining is the most appropriate, how to choose the clothing that suits you? If you want to know all of this, you should also learn the basic knowledge of clothing materials. Here are 10 items for you to learn together.
1. The concept of clothing material-clothing material is used to make, decoration, packaging clothing of various fabrics, accessories and packaging materials collectively.
2. The scope of clothing materials - clothing materials are divided into three aspects: (1) clothing fabrics: cotton, linen, wool, silk, chemical fiber and various blended fabrics. (2) garment accessories: lining, stuffing, lining, bagging, sewing thread, buttons and decorative materials. (3) packing materials: wood, wrapping paper, carton, cardboard box, desiccant, moth proofing agent and mould inhibitor.
3. Clothing materials must have three properties - clothing materials must have three properties: (1) clothing materials must have good performance to meet the physical health of the human body, namely heat conduction, air permeability, moisture absorption, radiation resistance, pollution resistance, good heat resistance, weight appropriate. (2) If the appearance quality is to be beautiful, it must conform to the higher and higher aesthetic performance of consumers, that is, luster, feel, dyeability and good retention. (3) Clothing materials must be practical, that is, toughness, elasticity, wear resistance, plasticity, waterproof, anti-brittleness, insect moth, mildew, light resistance, shrinkage and other excellent performance.
4. Definition and properties of textile fibers - the so-called fibers refer to the length of a thousand times larger than the diameter, diameter of only a few microns or tens of microns, and has a certain flexibility of fiber materials, collectively known as fiber. In nature, there are many kinds of fiber materials, but not all fiber materials can be used for spinning and weaving, only suitable for the use of textile clothing materials and processing technology performance requirements of the fiber, can be called textile fiber.
5. Properties of textile fibers - textile fibers must have the following six properties: (1) textile fibers must have certain physical and mechanical properties, can withstand certain limits of tensile, torsional, friction and other strong effects. (2) The length and fineness of the fibers should be suitable for the requirements of the textile processing technology, and can meet each other to complete the spinning of the yarn. (3) To be flexible, textile fibers should have certain elasticity, that is, easy to produce deformation, but also has a good ability to restore deformation. (4) textile fibers must be thermally poor conductors with certain thermal insulation properties. (5) Textile fibers must have certain hygroscopicity and ventilation, so as to absorb human sweat excretion and facilitate the dyeing and printing of textiles and clothing. (6) Textile fibers must be chemically stable, i.e. resistant to light, heat, acid and alkali.
6. Classification of textile fibers - there are many kinds of textile fibers, generally can be divided into two categories, one is our more familiar cotton, wool, silk, linen and other natural fibers, they are natural growth of fiber materials, can be used directly for spinning and weaving, so they are called "natural fibers", natural fibers. According to its source is divided into plant fiber and animal fiber, cotton, hemp and other plant fiber is the main chemical composition of cellulose, so also known as cellulose fiber. The main chemical components of animal fibers such as wool and silk are proteins, so they are also called protein fibers. Another kind is chemical fibers, chemical fibers refer to natural or synthetic polymers as raw materials, through chemical processing of textile fibers, chemical fibers and according to the raw materials used and treatment methods are different, there are artificial fibers and synthetic fibers. Man-made fibers are made from natural macromolecule materials, such as wood, cotton, etc., by chemical processing according to the appearance of natural fibers such as cotton and wool, such as artificial cotton. And nylon, vinylon, polyester and other are synthetic fibers, they are all coal, petroleum, natural gas and other raw materials, first processed into some basic chemical raw materials, and then made by complex chemical methods of textile fibers.
7. The classification of fabrics - clothing materials are various, hundreds of varieties, although thousands of varieties, but are classified according to certain standards, fabrics are divided into cotton, woolen, linen, silk and chemical fibers by their composition; fabrics by color (color) classification, divided into primary colored fabric, plain colored fabric (or what colored fabric). Fabric, printed fabric and yarn dyed fabric.
8. The properties of cotton fabrics-cotton fabrics are woven with cotton fibers through spinning, weaving and many other processes, because cotton fibers have many excellent properties, thus back-printed to the quality of cotton fabrics with excellent hygroscopicity, heat preservation, comfortable wearing air permeability, the shortcomings are insolation, weak acid resistance, easy to mildew. Quality.
9. The properties of linen fabrics - the main properties of linen fabrics are: (1) good strength, natural fiber, linen fiber strength is the best, ramie strength is the best, has good wear resistance, tensile properties. (2) linen fabric has good insulation and good heat resistance. (3) Hemp fabrics have good moisture absorption and water resistance, but the elasticity is the worst in natural fibers, so hemp fabrics are easy to crease, washing must be sizing or ironing.
10. Properties of woolen fabrics - wool is the main raw material of woolen fabrics, of which wool accounts for about 95-97%, camel hair and goat hair accounts for only 1-3%. Because wool is the main raw material of woolen fabrics, the properties of woolen fabrics are mainly determined by the properties of wool. The main properties of woolen fabrics also reflect the properties of wool.